Almost all coffee production in the world is concentrated in the strip bounded between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, being merely anecdotal the few plantations that exist outside of these areas. The weather and the geographical are, above all, the countries of South America and some African and Far East, places for the production of a wide and diverse range of cafes, aromas and flavors of which the become unique pieces, objects of desire, every day, millions of hungry palates of pleasurable sensations.
After being coffee, for years, a state that imposed trade purchases to a specific producer countries, now have the freedom to import the best quality coffee that will best suit your preferences. The coffee is back in vogue, and today, and increasingly, it is possible to find a good coffee suited to our palate, or time of day. We lack, however, a greater understanding of the many existing varieties of coffee and its various flavors and qualities.
Made a big mistake if we think of coffee as a single class of drink, waiting for a better or worse quality only in terms of price or the store where they acquire or tasted. It is essential to know the quality / price ratio when buying a good coffee, not just cost.
Among the different species of coffee, two are the most widespread: arabica and canephora, the latter always confused with robusta, in fact one of its subspecies.
The Arabs (to highlight its variety of Java, Mocha, Bourbon, Maragogype ...) are responsible for almost 70% of world production. Originally from Ethiopia, are cultivated mainly in humid and high-from 600 to 1,200 meters or more, of Central and South America, Africa and Asia. They are low in caffeine -0 '3 / 1.2% - are very aromatic, light-colored and have a light body. Of course the most expensive coffees.
Room here for two classifications according to their benefit: washes, wet or treated in countries or areas with abundant water and unwashed, from drier areas.
Washed arabica coffee
Grains are large, elliptical, bluish-green color and smell of green. Toasting develops greatly in volume and in the cup is a great-tasting aromatic coffee. It occurs mainly in Central and East African countries.
Unwashed arabica coffee
Grown mainly in Brazil, its cultivation began in 1732 in the then Portuguese colonies of Pará, Amazonas and Maranhao. In 1760 coffee was introduced from the Portuguese colony of Goa in India. Grains are oval, yellow-green color and smell of green grass, with varied tastes depending on the growing region. Are typical Rio Riozonas Riyadh and charged by its characteristic flavor reminiscent iodine.
(Varieties include Conilon, Kouilloi, niaouli, Uganda ...) contribute 30% of world production. Species "discovered" by observing that it was immune to the plague that decimated Vastatrix Hemiliea mushrooms to the Arabs, hence comes the name. Originally from Zaire, the main crops are low and dry areas of Africa, Indochina and Brazil. Are brown with a higher caffeine content, from 2 to 4%. It features a round grain, regular, yellowish-brown and smelling of straw. Roasting is normal and results in a strong coffee, full bodied, dark and strong bitter flavor with a point that sticks to the palate. Coffee usually treated dry-no-wash, which implies the possible presence of ground cracks and other defects.
(Peaberry, or pearlcaffe caracoli). It's no variety, but a special type of grain. In fact it is a grain "defective" that does not grow to be located at the ends of branches and receive little input from sap. It grows on itself, developing a single round grain in the cherry instead of the normal 2 / 2 grains. Being located on the periphery of the tree receives the maximum contribution of rain and sunlight. Coffee is a highly valued for its ripe, fruity palate.